Adherence to self-management in patients with multimorbidity and associated factors : a cross-sectional study in primary health care
Paukkonen, Leila; Oikarinen, Anne; Kähkönen, Outi; Kyngäs, Helvi (2021-10-26)
Paukkonen, L., Oikarinen, A., Kähkönen, O., & Kyngäs, H. (2022). Adherence to self-management in patients with multimorbidity and associated factors: A cross-sectional study in primary health care. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 31, 2805– 2820. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.16099
© 2021 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Paukkonen, L., Oikarinen, A., Kähkönen, O., & Kyngäs, H. (2022). Adherence to self-management in patients with multimorbidity and associated factors: A cross-sectional study in primary health care. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 31, 2805– 2820, which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.16099. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions. This article may not be enhanced, enriched or otherwise transformed into a derivative work, without express permission from Wiley or by statutory rights under applicable legislation. Copyright notices must not be removed, obscured or modified. The article must be linked to Wiley’s version of record on Wiley Online Library and any embedding, framing or otherwise making available the article or pages thereof by third parties from platforms, services and websites other than Wiley Online Library must be prohibited.
Aim: The aim of the study was to explore the adherence to self-management of patients with multimorbidity, identify associated factors, and determine explanatory factors of their adherence to self-management in terms of the Theory of Adherence of People with Chronic Disease.
Background: Adherence to self-management is essential for successful care of multimorbid patients, but multimorbidity poses challenges for both patients and practitioners due to its care complexity and broad impact on patients’ lives.
Design: A cross-sectional, descriptive exploratory design with the STROBE reporting checklist was applied.
Methods: Adult multimorbid patients who attended primary healthcare consultations in Finland were surveyed using self-administered questionnaires with several instruments including the Adherence of People with Chronic Disease Instrument, Kasari’s FIT Index, and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification test. Responses of 124 patients were analysed using descriptive statistics, Spearman correlations, binary logistic regression analysis, and Chi-squared, or corresponding, tests.
Results: Most patients’ responses indicated good or adequate adherence to care regimens and medications. However, adherence to self-management for a healthy lifestyle was more frequently inadequate. Adherence was significantly associated with several patient-related factors, including demographic and health-related factors, perceived adequacy of loved ones, and patient activation. Significant explanatory factors for adherence included energy and willpower, motivation, results of care, sense of normality, fear of complications and additional diseases, and support from nurses, from physicians, and from family and friends. Various factors were relevant for specific aspects of self-management.
Conclusions: Multimorbid patients’ adherence to self-management is not an ‘all or none phenomenon, but a multifaceted process with numerous associated and explanatory factors.
Relevance to clinical practice: The findings highlight needs for an individualised whole-person approach in multimorbid patients’ care to provide the required support for good adherence to self-management. Healthcare professionals, especially nurses working in primary health care, are well-positioned to meet this need.
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