Lysyl hydroxylases : studies on recombinant lysyl hydroxylases and mouse lines lacking lysyl hydroxylase 1 or lysyl hydroxylase 3
Takaluoma, Kati (2007-05-15)
Lysyl hydroxylases (E.C. 188.8.131.52, LHs) have three isoenzymes that are found in humans and mice, and they hydroxylate lysine residues in collagens and other proteins containing collagenous sequences. The hydroxylysines formed are crucial for the intermolecular collagen crosslinks that stabilise collagen fibres, thereby providing the stiffness and stability required by various tissues. In addition, hydroxylysines serve as attachment sites for carbohydrates, whose functions on collagen molecules are not completely understood yet. In humans, lack of LH1 causes Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) VIA, which is characterised, for example, by severe progressive kyphoscoliosis and muscular hypotonia with joint laxity. Mutations in the LH2 gene are associated with Bruck syndrome, which is characterised by fragile bones with congenital joint contractures.
In the present work recombinant human lysyl hydroxylases were produced in insect cells and purified to homogeneity. Limited proteolysis revealed that LHs consist of at least three structural domains. The N-terminal domain plays no role in the lysyl hydroxylase activity, but instead, is responsible for the recently reported glucosyltransferase activity of LH3, and the galactosyltransferase activity reported here for the first time. The LH polypeptide lacking the N-terminal domain is a fully active LH with Km values identical to those of full-length enzyme. In addition, direct evidence is shown that LH2, but not LH1 or LH3, hydroxylates the telopeptide lysine residues of fibrillar collagens. All three recombinant LHs were able to hydroxylate the synthetic peptides representing the helical hydroxylation sites in types I and IV collagens, with some differences in the Vmax and Km values. In addition, all three LHs hydroxylated the collagenous domain of coexpressed type I procollagen chain to similar extend.
In this study mouse lines lacking LH3 or LH1 were created and analysed. Unexpectedly, the LH3 null mice died during the embryonal period due to fragmentation of basement membranes. Type IV collagen, one of the major components in basement membranes, aggregates on its way to extracellular space and is absent from the basement membranes making them fragile. This is most probably caused by abnormal processing of type IV collagen due to decreased glucosyltransferase activity of the LH3 null embryos.
The first mouse model for human EDS VIA is presented here. The LH1 null mice did not have kyphoscoliosis characteristic of EDS VIA, but showed gait abnormalities due to muscular hypotonia and possible joint laxity, as also seen in EDS VIA patients. In addition, the null mice died occasionally from aortic ruptures. Ultra structural analysis revealed degradation of smooth muscle cells and abnormal collagen fibres even in non-ruptured aortas of LH1 null mice. The hydroxylation of lysine residues and crosslinking in LH1 null mice were also abnormal, as in human EDS VIA patients. The LH1 null mouse line provides an excellent tool for analysing several aspects of human EDS VIA, including muscular hypotonia, abnormalities in collagen fibres and their crosslinking.
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