Transcriptional regulation of the hepatic cytochrome <em>P450 2a5</em> gene
Arpiainen, Satu (2007-09-25)
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are the major metabolizers of xenobiotics, e.g. drugs, and environmental toxins. Thus, changes in CYP expression have an important impact on drug metabolism and susceptibility to chemical toxicity.
In the present study, the transcriptional mechanisms of both constitutive and inducible regulation of the Cyp2a5 gene in mouse liver were investigated. Mouse primary hepatocyte cultures were used as the main model system together with cell and molecular biology methods.
The key activation regions of the Cyp2a5 5' promoter were determined using reporter gene assays. Two major transcription activation sites of the Cyp2a5 5' promoter, called the proximal and the distal, were found. Transcription factors hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 (HNF-4) and nuclear factor I were shown to bind to the proximal promoter. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) and upstream stimulatory factor bound to a common palindromic E-box element in the distal promoter region. All three response elements were shown to be essential for constitutive expression of CYP2A5 in murine hepatocytes. ARNT appeared to control Cyp2a5 transcription without a heterodimerization partner suggesting active involvement of the ARNT homodimer in mammalian gene regulation.
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligands were shown to induce Cyp2a5 transcriptionally by an AHR-dependent mechanism, and established Cyp2a5 as a novel AHR-regulated gene. The AHR response element and the E-box, identified in these studies, were located near to each other and close to a separately defined nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 binding site in the distal region of the Cyp2a5 promoter, suggesting cooperation between these elements.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α was shown to up-regulate Cyp2a5 transcription through coactivation of HNF-4α. This indicates that xenobiotic metabolism can be regulated by modification of co-activation.
The present results show that CYP2A5 is regulated by several different cross-regulatory pathways. The regulatory mechanisms involved in the transcription of the Cyp2a5 gene may also control other CYP genes, especially the human ortholog CYP2A6, and may explain some of the individual variations in the metabolism of xenobiotics.
- Avoin saatavuus