Early-onset climacterium is not associated with impaired vitamin D status : a population-based study
Lumme, Johanna E.; Savukoski, Susanna M.; Suvanto, Eila TJ.; Pesonen, Paula RO.; Auvinen, Juha P.; Sebert, Sylvain; Hyppönen, Elina; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Puukka, Katri S.; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Oura, Petteri; Ojaniemi, Marja; Niinimäki, Maarit (2021-08-31)
Lumme, J., Savukoski, S., Suvanto, E., Pesonen, P., Auvinen, J., Sebert, S., Hyppönen, E., Järvelin, M., Puukka, K., Herzig, K., Oura, P., Ojaniemi, M., Niinimäki, M. (2021) Early-onset climacterium is not associated with impaired vitamin D status: a population-based study. Menopause, 28(8), 899-908. doi:10.1097/GME.0000000000001781
© 2021 The North American Menopause Society. The final authenticated version is available online at https://doi.org/10.1097/GME.0000000000001781.
Objective: To investigate vitamin D status in women with the onset of the climacteric phase by age 46 as both early menopause and inadequate vitamin D status may increase the risk of adverse health outcomes.
Methods: A cross-sectional study included 2,544, 46-year-old women from a birth cohort. Women were divided into the following two groups according to their menstrual history and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentration: 1) climacteric (FSH ≥25 IU/L and amenorrhea ≥4 mo,n = 351) and 2) preclimacteric women (FSH <25 IU/L and having regular/irregular menstrual cycles, n = 2,193). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were compared between the groups. A linear regression model was performed to investigate which factors are associated with 25(OH)D status.
Results: Mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations were higher in climacteric compared with preclimacteric women (68.1 ± 19.8 nmol/L vs 65.2 ± 19.3 nmol/L, P = 0.01). However, in the linear regression model, climacteric status was not associated with 25(OH)D status (multivariable adjusted mean difference 4.5 nmol/L, 95% confidence interval −1.4 to 10.4, P = 0.137). A total of 76 of the climacteric women were using systemic estrogen hormone therapy (HT). In a subanalysis, including only climacteric women, the use of HT was associated with higher 25(OH)D status (multivariable adjusted mean difference 5.9 nmol/L, 95% confidence interval 1.3–10.5, P = 0.013).
Conclusions: The onset of the climacteric phase by age 46 was not associated with inadequate 25(OH)D concentrations, whereas HT use was associated with higher 25(OH)D status in women with early-onset climacterium.
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