Synthesis of zerovalent iron from water treatment residue as a conjugate with kaolin and its application for vanadium removal
Bello, Adedayo; Leiviskä, Tiina; Zhang, Ruichi; Tanskanen, Juha; Maziarz, Paulina; Matusik, Jakub; Bhatnagar, Amit (2019-07-15)
Bello, A., Leiviskä, T., Zhang, R., Tanskanen, J., Maziarz, P., Matusik, J., & Bhatnagar, A. (2019). Synthesis of zerovalent iron from water treatment residue as a conjugate with kaolin and its application for vanadium removal. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 374, 372–381. Elsevier BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.04.056
© 2019. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http:/creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
This study was aimed at examining the possible utilization of iron-rich groundwater treatment sludge in the synthesis of zerovalent iron (ZVI) as a conjugate with kaolin clay (Slu-KZVI), and its application for vanadium adsorption from aqueous solutions. Iron was extracted from the sludge using 1 M HCl and was used in ZVI synthesis by the sodium borohydride reduction method. The characteristics and performance of Slu-KZVI were compared to a kaolin modified with synthetic iron (FeCl₃·6H₂O) (Syn-KZVI). Adsorption results showed a competitive performance by both classes of KZVI, with Syn-KZVI slightly outperforming Slu-KZVI. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the formation of Fe⁰ on the core-shell structure of both modified adsorbents. In addition, the surface analysis of Slu-KZVI indicated the presence of P and Ca to a small extent, originating from the sludge. Both classes of sorbents performed better in solutions with acidic and neutral pH values (3–7). Surface complexation was thought to be the primary mechanism whereas simultaneous V(V) reduction and Fe oxidation (redox) reactions may also have taken place to some extent. A sorption test with groundwater confirmed that adsorbents were able to reduce vanadium to a very low concentration.
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