Higher hemoglobin levels are an independent risk factor for gestational diabetes
Sissala, Niina; Mustaniemi, Sanna; Kajantie, Eero; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Koivunen, Peppi (2022-01-31)
Sissala, N., Mustaniemi, S., Kajantie, E. et al. Higher hemoglobin levels are an independent risk factor for gestational diabetes. Sci Rep 12, 1686 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-05801-y
© The Author(s) 2022. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
Incidence of gestational diabetes (GDM) has increased rapidly. It poses significant risks for both mother and fetus affecting also negatively their longer-term metabolic heath. We asked whether early pregnancy maternal hemoglobin (Hb) levels, indicative for tissue oxygenation, would affect mother’s metabolic health and fetal outcome. We assessed in FinnGeDi, a Finnish multicenter case–control study for GDM (n = 1828), association of maternal 1st trimester Hb levels with metabolic parameters and perinatal outcome. Our data show that mothers with GDM had higher Hb levels compared to controls (mean difference 1.746 g/L). Hb levels associated positively with pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose levels and glucose levels in a glucose tolerance test and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (bp) levels. When assessed in quartiles the highest Hb quartile had more chronic and gestational hypertension and the most adverse outcome of the metabolic parameters, dose-dependency seen in bp, BMI and glucose levels. In a multivariable regression analysis Hb levels remained an independently associated parameter for GDM after adjusting for key covariates (OR 1.019, 95% CI [1.007; 1.031]). In conclusion, higher maternal Hb levels within the normal variation are an independent risk factor for GDM in this population but have little effect on perinatal outcome.
- Avoin saatavuus