Deep learning enables accurate automatic sleep staging based on ambulatory forehead EEG
Leino, Akseli; Korkalainen, Henri; Kalevo, Laura; Nikkonen, Sami; Kainulainen, Samu; Ryan, Alexander; Duce, Brett; Sipilä, Kirsi; Ahlberg, Jari; Sahlman, Johanna; Miettinen, Tomi; Westeren-Punnonen, Susanna; Mervaala, Esa; Töyräs, Juha; Myllymaa, Sami; Leppänen, Timo; Myllymaa, Katja (2022-02-25)
A. Leino et al., "Deep Learning Enables Accurate Automatic Sleep Staging Based on Ambulatory Forehead EEG," in IEEE Access, vol. 10, pp. 26554-26566, 2022, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3154899
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We have previously developed an ambulatory electrode set (AES) for the measurement of electroencephalography (EEG), electrooculography (EOG), and electromyography (EMG). The AES has been proven to be suitable for manual sleep staging and self-application in in- home polysomnography (PSG). To further facilitate the diagnostics of various sleep disorders, this study aimed to utilize a deep learning-based automated sleep staging approach for EEG signals acquired with the AES. The present neural network architecture comprises a combination of convolutional and recurrent neural networks previously shown to achieve excellent sleep scoring accuracy with a single standard EEG channel (F4-M1). In this study, the model was re- trained and tested with 135 EEG signals recorded with AES. The recordings were conducted for subjects suspected of sleep apnea or sleep bruxism. The performance of the deep learning model was evaluated with 10-fold cross-validation using manual scoring of the AES signals as a reference. The accuracy of the neural network sleep staging was 79.7% (κ = 0.729 ) for five sleep stages (W, N1, N2, N3, and R), 84.1% (κ = 0.773 ) for four sleep stages (W, light sleep, deep sleep, R), and 89.1% (κ = 0.801 ) for three sleep stages (W, NREM, R). The utilized neural network was able to accurately determine sleep stages based on EEG channels measured with the AES. The accuracy is comparable to the inter-scorer agreement of standard EEG scorings between international sleep centers. The automatic AES-based sleep staging could potentially improve the availability of PSG studies by facilitating the arrangement of self-administrated in- home PSGs.
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