Sustainable iron-rich cements : raw material sources and binder types
Peys, Arne; Isteri, Visa; Yliniemi, Juho; Yorkshire, Antonia S.; Lemougna, Patrick N.; Utton, Claire; Provis, John L.; Snellings, Ruben; Hanein, Theodore (2022-05-13)
Arne Peys, Visa Isteri, Juho Yliniemi, Antonia S. Yorkshire, Patrick N. Lemougna, Claire Utton, John L. Provis, Ruben Snellings, Theodore Hanein, Sustainable iron-rich cements: Raw material sources and binder types, Cement and Concrete Research, Volume 157, 2022, 106834, ISSN 0008-8846, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2022.106834
© 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
The bulk of the cement industry’s environmental burden is from the calcareous source. Calcium is mostly available naturally as limestone (CaCO₃), where almost half of the mass is eventually released as CO₂ during clinker manufacture. Iron (Fe) is the fourth most common element in the Earth’s crust surpassed only by oxygen, silicon, and aluminium; therefore, potential raw materials for alternative cements can contain significant amounts of iron. This review paper discusses in detail the most abundantly available Fe-rich natural resources and industrial by-products and residues, establishing symbiotic supply chains from various sectors. The discussion then focusses on the impact of high iron content in clinker and on ferrite (thermo)chemistry, as well as the importance of iron speciation on its involvement in the reactions as supplementary cementitious material or alkali-activated materials, and the technical quality that can be achieved from sustainable Fe-rich cements.
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