Surface modification of cured inorganic foams with cationic cellulose nanocrystals and their use as reactive filter media for anionic dye removal
Selkälä, Tuula; Suopajärvi, Terhi; Sirviö, Juho Antti; Luukkonen, Tero; Kinnunen, Päivö; Coelho Braga de Carvalho, Ana Luiza; Liimatainen, Henrikki (2020-06-08)
Selkälä, T., Suopajärvi, T., Sirviö, J., Luukkonen, T., Kinnunen, P., de Carvalho, A., Liimatainen, H. (2020) Surface Modification of Cured Inorganic Foams with Cationic Cellulose Nanocrystals and Their Use as Reactive Filter Media for Anionic Dye Removal. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2020, 12, 24, 27745–27757, https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c05927
© 2020 American Chemical Society. This is an open access article published under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the author and source are cited.
In this work, a surface cationized inorganic–organic hybrid foam was produced from porous geopolymer (GP) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). GPs were synthesized from alkali-activated metakaolin using H₂O₂ as a blowing agent and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a surfactant. These highly porous GPs were combined at pH 7.5 with cationic CNCs that had been synthesized from dissolving pulp through periodate oxidation followed by cationization in a deep eutectic solvent. The GP-CNC hybrid foams were employed as reactive filters in the removal of the anionic dye, methyl orange (MO; 5–10 mg/L, pH 7). The effects of a mild acid wash and thermal treatments on the structure, properties, and adsorption capacity of the GPs with CNCs and MO were investigated. The CNCs aligned as films and filaments on the surfaces of the neutralized GPs and the addition of CNCs improved MO removal by up to 84% compared with the reference sample. In addition, CTAB was found to disrupt the attachment of CNCs on the pores and improve adsorption of MO in the GPs with and without CNCs.
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