Toward new benchmark adsorbents : preparation and characterization of activated carbon from argan nut shell for bisphenol A removal
Zbair, Mohamed; Ainassaari, Kaisu; Drif, Asmaa; Ojala, Satu; Bottlinger, Michael; Pirilä, Minna; Keiski, Riitta L.; Bensitel, Mohammed; Brahmi, Rachid (2017-11-04)
Zbair, M., Ainassaari, K., Drif, A. et al. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2018) 25: 1869. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0634-6
© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017. This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Environmental science and pollution research. The final authenticated version is available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0634-6.
The use of argan nut shell as a precursor for producing activated carbon was investigated in this work. Two activated carbons AC-HP and AC-Na were prepared from argan nut shell by chemical activation method using phosphoric acid (H₃PO₄) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH), respectively. Textural, morphological, and surface chemistry characteristics were studied by nitrogen physisorption, TGA, SEM, TXRF, FTIR, XRD, and by determining the pHPZC of the AC-HP. The adsorption experiments revealed that AC-HP was more efficient in adsorption of BPA due to high specific surface area (1372 m²/g) compared to AC-Na (798 m²/g). The obtained adsorption data of BPA on AC-HP correlated well with the pseudo-second-order model and the Langmuir isotherm (Qmax = 1250 mg/g at 293 K). The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG° < 0, ΔH° < 0, and ΔS° < 0) indicate that adsorption of BPA on AC-HP was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. The regeneration of AC-HP showed excellent results after 5 cycles (95–93%). This work does not only provide a potential way to use argan nut shell but also represents a sustainable approach to synthesize AC-HP, which might be an ideal material for various applications (energy storage, catalysis, and environmental remediation).
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