Concentric ring probe for bioimpedance spectroscopic measurements : design and ex vivo feasibility testing on pork oral tissues
Emran, Shekh; Lappalainen, Reijo; Kullaa, Arja M.; Myllymaa, Sami (2018-10-10)
Emran, S.; Lappalainen, R.; Kullaa, A.M.; Myllymaa, S. Concentric Ring Probe for Bioimpedance Spectroscopic Measurements: Design and Ex Vivo Feasibility Testing on Pork Oral Tissues. Sensors 2018, 18, 3378.
© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Many oral diseases, such as oral leukoplakia and erythroplakia, which have a high potential for malignant transformations, cause abnormal structural changes in the oral mucosa. These changes are clinically assessed by visual inspection and palpation despite their poor accuracy and subjective nature. We hypothesized that non-invasive bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) might be a viable option to improve the diagnostics of potentially malignant lesions. In this study, we aimed to design and optimize the measurement setup and to conduct feasibility testing on pork oral tissues. The contact pressure between a custom-made concentric ring probe and tissue was experimentally optimized. The effects of loading time and inter-electrode spacing on BIS spectra were also clarified. Tissue differentiation testing was performed for ex vivo pork oral tissues including palatinum, buccal mucosa, fat, and muscle tissue samples. We observed that the most reproducible results were obtained by using a loading weight of 200 g and a fixed time period under press, which was necessary to allow meaningful quantitative comparison. All studied tissues showed their own unique spectra, accompanied by significant differences in both impedance magnitude and phase (p ≤ 0.014, Kruskal-Wallis test). BIS shows promise, and further studies are warranted to clarify its potential to detect specific pathological tissue alterations.
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