The formation and characterization of fretting-induced degradation layers using quenched and tempered steel
Nurmi, Verner; Hintikka, Jouko; Juoksukangas, Janne; Honkanen, Mari; Vippola, Minnamari; Lehtovaara, Arto; Mäntylä, Antti; Vaara, Joona; Frondelius, Tero (2018-09-14)
Nurmi, V., Hintikka, J., Juoksukangas, J., Honkanen, M., Vippola, M., Lehtovaara, A., Mäntylä, A., Vaara, J., Frondelius, T. (2019) The formation and characterization of fretting-induced degradation layers using quenched and tempered steel. Tribology International, 131, 258-267. doi:10.1016/j.triboint.2018.09.012
© 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/BY/4.0/).
Fretting movement is dangerous for machines, because it can cause cracking and surface degradation. The aim of this work was to characterize fretting-induced material degradation in large flat-on-flat contacts without edge effects in a sliding direction using quenched and tempered steel 34CrNiMo6. The focus was on the adhesive contact spots, which were formed under a wide variety of operating conditions. Characterization methods were optical microscopy, Vickers hardness tests and scanning electron microscopy. Three different degradation areas were observed: a general deformation layer, a tribologically transformed structure and a third body layer. All the degradation phases have high hardness and low ductility compared to the base material. The formation and behavior of the degradation layers in different operating conditions were discussed.
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