One-part geopolymer cement from slag and pretreated paper sludge
Adesanya, Elijah; Ohenoja, Katja; Luukkonen, Tero; Kinnunen, Päivö; Illikainen, Mirja (2018-03-03)
Adesanya, E., Ohenoja, K., Luukkonen, T., Kinnunen, P., Illikainen, M. (2018) One-part geopolymer cement from slag and pretreated paper sludge. Journal of Cleaner Production, 185 (), 168-175. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.03.007
© 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open Access funded by the author(s). Under a Creative Commons license.
The aim of this study was the valorization of paper sludge waste from paper industry in designing one-part geopolymer cement using ground granulated blast furnace slag as main precursor. The effects of increasing the amount of paper sludge pretreated with a constant amount of sodium hydroxide (2% of slag) on mechanical strength, heat evolution, setting time and durability were analyzed. The reaction products were characterized using X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. The findings showed that paper sludge can successfully be used as a secondary source of calcium carbonate in the one-part (“just add water”) geopolymer. The compressive strength of the cured geopolymer increased with increasing the amount of paper sludge, and the non-reacted sludge acted as a filler. The maximum strength (42 MPa, 28 d) was reached at 18 wt-% paper sludge addition. The main reaction products were calcium aluminate silicate hydrate and hydrotalcite-like cementitious gels. From the perspective of its blast-furnace slag content, strength properties, water absorption and setting time, the one-part geopolymer cement could be classified as a CEM IIIC and Type 32.5N class cement under the European standard EN-197.
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