Compact laser radar based on a subnanosecond laser diode transmitter and a two-dimensional CMOS single-photon receiver
Huikari, Jaakko; Jahromi, Sahba; Jansson, Jussi-Pekka; Kostamovaara, Juha (2018-02-19)
Huikari, J., Jahromi, S., Jansson, J., Kostamovaara, J. (2018) Compact laser radar based on a subnanosecond laser diode transmitter and a two-dimensional CMOS single-photon receiver. Optical Engineering, 57 (02), 1. doi:10.1117/1.OE.57.2.024104
© The Authors. Published by SPIE under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Distribution or reproduction of this work in whole or in part requires full attribution of the original publication, including its DOI. [DOI: 10.1117/1.OE.57.2.024104].
A pulsed TOF laser radar utilizing the single-photon detection mode has been implemented, and its performance is characterized. The transmitter employs a QW double-heterostructure laser diode producing 0.6 nJ∕100 ps laser pulses at a central wavelength of ∼810 nm. The detector is a single-chip IC manufactured in the standard 0.35-μmHV CMOS process, including a 9 × 9 single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array and a 10-channel time-to-digital converter (TDC) circuit. Both the SPAD array and the TDC circuit support a time gating feature allowing photon detection to occur only within a predefined time window. The SPAD array also supports a 3 × 3 SPADs subarray selection feature to respond to the laser spot wandering effect due to the paraxial optics and to reduce background radiation-induced detections. The characterization results demonstrate a distance measurement accuracy of þ∕ − 0.5 mm to a target at 34 m having 11% reflectivity. The signal detection rate is 28% at a laser pulsing rate of 100 kHz. The single-shot precision of the laser radar is ∼20 mm (FWHM). The deteriorating impact of high-level background radiation conditions on the SNR is demonstrated, as also is a scheme to improve this by means of detector time gating.
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