Characterization of the timing homogeneity in a CMOS SPAD array designed for time-gated Raman spectroscopy
Holma, Jouni; Nissinen , Ilkka; Nissinen, Jan; Kostamovaara, Juha (2017-03-27)
J. Holma, I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen and J. Kostamovaara, "Characterization of the Timing Homogeneity in a CMOS SPAD Array Designed for Time-Gated Raman Spectroscopy," in IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 66, no. 7, pp. 1837-1844, July 2017. doi: 10.1109/TIM.2017.2673002
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A characterization environment was built to verify the timing characteristics of a single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array designed for time-gated Raman spectroscopy. The characterization was applied to a 256 × 16 SPAD array that employed an on-chip time-to-digital converter (TDC) with a 50–100-ps resolution for time resolving. The timing skew and the time window homogeneity across the array were resolved, moving the time-resolving windows over an optical pulse by picosecond-level delay steps. A typical one 160-ps skew across the array was measured. The TDC time bins had average sizes of 33–144 ps while their deviation across the array was 8–12 ps. The method is applicable to multidetector time-correlated single photon counting systems that can finely adjust the delay between the optical pulse and the reference signal.
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