Evaluation of time-gated Raman spectroscopy for the determination of nitric, sulfuric and hydrofluoric acid concentrations in pickle liquor
Heilala, Bryan; Mäkinen, Ari; Nissinen, Ilkka; Nissinen, Jan; Mäkynen, Anssi; Perämäki, Paavo (2017-11-20)
Bryan Heilala, Ari Mäkinen, Ilkka Nissinen, Jan Nissinen, Anssi Mäkynen, Paavo Perämäki, Evaluation of time-gated Raman spectroscopy for the determination of nitric, sulfuric and hydrofluoric acid concentrations in pickle liquor, Microchemical Journal, Volume 137, 2018, Pages 342-347, ISSN 0026-265X, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2017.11.010
© 2017. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
The focus of this study was to assess the feasibility of time-gated Raman spectroscopy for stainless steel pickle liquor acid quantification. Pickle liquor is used for dissolving metal surface impurities during the pickling process. The pickle liquor samples consisted mainly of 11–89 g/L HNO₃, 20–160 g/L H₂SO₄, 5–57 g/L HF and stainless steel residue. Raman peaks correlating with the different acids were identified in both aqueous and pickle liquor solutions. The linearity between Raman scattering intensity and acid concentration was studied. Multivariate PLSR calibration for pickle liquor HNO₃, H₂SO₄ and HF quantification was also investigated. Time-gated Raman spectroscopy was found to be a promising technique for pickle liquor HNO₃ and H₂SO₄ quantification.
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