Early arthritis induces disturbances at bone nanostructural level reflected in decreased tissue hardness in an animal model of arthritis
Vidal, Bruno; Cascão, Rita; Finnilä, Mikko A. J.; Lopes, Inês P.; Saarakkala, Simo; Zioupos, Peter; Canhão, Helena; Fonseca, João E. (2018-01-09)
Vidal B, Cascão R, Finnilä MAJ, Lopes IP, Saarakkala S, Zioupos P, et al. (2018) Early arthritis induces disturbances at bone nanostructural level reflected in decreased tissue hardness in an animal model of arthritis. PLoS ONE 13(1): e0190920. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0190920
© 2018 Vidal et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Introduction: Arthritis induces joint erosions and skeletal bone fragility.
Objectives: The main goal of this work was to analyze the early arthritis induced events at bone architecture and mechanical properties at tissue level.
Methods: Eighty-eight Wistar rats were randomly housed in experimental groups, as follows: adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA) (N = 47) and a control healthy group (N = 41). Rats were monitored during 22 days for the inflammatory score, ankle perimeter and body weight and sacrificed at different time points (11 and 22 days post disease induction). Bone samples were collected for histology, micro computed tomography (micro-CT), 3-point bending and nanoindentation. Blood samples were also collected for bone turnover markers and systemic cytokine quantification.
Results: At bone tissue level, measured by nanoindentation, there was a reduction of hardness in the arthritic group, associated with an increase of the ratio of bone concentric to parallel lamellae and of the area of the osteocyte lacuna. In addition, increased bone turnover and changes in the microstructure and mechanical properties were observed in arthritic animals, since the early phase of arthritis, when compared with healthy controls.
Conclusion: We have shown in an AIA rat model that arthritis induces very early changes at bone turnover, structural degradation and mechanical weakness. Bone tissue level is also affected since the early phase of arthritis, characterized by decreased tissue hardness associated with changes in bone lamella organization and osteocyte lacuna surface. These observations highlight the pertinence of immediate control of inflammation in the initial stages of arthritis.
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