Preoperative anemia in colorectal cancer : relationships with tumor characteristics, systemic inflammation, and survival
Väyrynen, Juha P.; Tuomisto, Anne; Väyrynen, Sara A.; Klintrup, Kai; Karhu, Toni; Mäkelä, Jyrki; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Karttunen, Tuomo J.; Mäkinen, Markus J. (2018-01-18)
Väyrynen, J., Tuomisto, A., Väyrynen, S., Klintrup, K., Karhu, T., Mäkelä, J., Herzig, K., Karttunen, T., Mäkinen, M. (2018) Preoperative anemia in colorectal cancer: relationships with tumor characteristics, systemic inflammation, and survival. Scientific Reports, 8 (1). doi:10.1038/s41598-018-19572-y
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Anemia is common in colorectal cancer (CRC) but its relationships with tumor characteristics, systemic inflammation, and survival have not been well characterized. In this study, blood hemoglobin levels and erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume (MCV) levels were measured in two independent cohorts of 148 CRC patients and 208 CRC patients, and their correlation with patient and tumor characteristics, systemic inflammatory markers (modified Glasgow Prognostic Score: mGPS; serum levels of thirteen cytokines, C-reactive protein, albumin), and survival were analyzed. We found that anemia, most frequently normocytic, followed by microcytic, was present in 43% of the patients. Microcytic anemia was most commonly associated with proximal colon tumor location. Average MCV and blood hemoglobin levels were lower in tumors with high T-class. Low blood hemoglobin associated with systemic inflammation, including high mGPS and high serum levels of C-reactive protein and IL-8. Particularly, normocytic anemia associated with higher mGPS. Normocytic anemia associated with a tendency towards worse overall survival (multivariate hazard ratio 1.61, 95% confidence interval 1.07–2.42, p = 0.023; borderline statistical significance considering multiple hypothesis testing). In conclusion, anemia in CRC patients is most frequently normocytic. Proximal tumor location is associated with predominantly microcytic anemia and systemic inflammation is associated with normocytic anemia.
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