Ultrafast NMR diffusion measurements exploiting chirp spin echoes
Ahola, Susanna; Mankinen, Otto; Telkki, Ville-Veikko (2016-11-15)
Ahola, S., Mankinen, O., and Telkki, V.-V. (2017) Ultrafast NMR diffusion measurements exploiting chirp spin echoes. Magn. Reson. Chem., 55: 341–347. doi: 10.1002/mrc.4540.
Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Ahola, S., Mankinen, O., and Telkki, V.-V. (2017) Ultrafast NMR diffusion measurements exploiting chirp spin echoes. Magn. Reson. Chem., 55: 341–347. doi: 10.1002/mrc.4540, which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1002/mrc.4540. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.
Standard diffusion NMR measurements require the repetition of the experiment multiple times with varying gradient strength or diffusion delay. This makes the experiment time-consuming and restricts the use of hyperpolarized substances to boost sensitivity. We propose a novel single-scan diffusion experiment, which is based on spatial encoding of two-dimensional data, employing the spin-echoes created by two successive adiabatic frequency-swept chirp π pulses. The experiment is called ultrafast pulsed-field-gradient spin-echo (UF-PGSE). We present a rigorous derivation of the echo amplitude in the UF-PGSE experiment, justifying the theoretical basis of the method. The theory reveals also that the standard analysis of experimental data leads to a diffusion coefficient value overestimated by a few per cent. Although the overestimation is of the order of experimental error and thus insignificant in many practical applications, we propose that it can be compensated by a bipolar gradient version of the experiment, UF-BP-PGSE, or by corresponding stimulated-echo experiment, UF-BP-pulsed-field-gradient stimulated-echo. The latter also removes the effect of uniform background gradients. The experiments offer significant prospects for monitoring fast processes in real time as well as for increasing the sensitivity of experiments by several orders of magnitude by nuclear spin hyperpolarization. Furthermore, they can be applied as basic blocks in various ultrafast multidimensional Laplace NMR experiments.
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