Angiopoietin–Tie signalling in the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems
Eklund, Lauri; Kangas, Jaakko; Saharinen, Pipsa (2016-12-09)
Lauri Eklund, Jaakko Kangas, Pipsa Saharinen. Clinical Science Dec 09, 2016, 131 (1) 87-103; DOI: 10.1042/CS20160129
© 2016 The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society and distributed under the 97 Creative Commons Attribution Licence 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND).
Endothelial cells that form the inner layer of blood and lymphatic vessels are important regulators of vascular functions and centrally involved in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. In addition to the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor pathway, the angiopoietin (Ang)–Tie system is a second endothelial cell specific ligand–receptor signalling system necessary for embryonic cardiovascular and lymphatic development. The Ang–Tie system also regulates postnatal angiogenesis, vessel remodelling, vascular permeability and inflammation to maintain vascular homoeostasis in adult physiology. This system is implicated in numerous diseases where the vasculature has an important contribution, such as cancer, sepsis, diabetes, atherosclerosis and ocular diseases. Furthermore, mutations in the TIE2 signalling pathway cause defects in vascular morphogenesis, resulting in venous malformations and primary congenital glaucoma. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of the Ang–Tie signalling system, including cross-talk with the vascular endothelial protein tyrosine phosphatase (VE-PTP) and the integrin cell adhesion receptors, focusing on the Ang–Tie system in vascular development and pathogenesis of vascular diseases.
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