Tenascin-C and fibronectin expression divide early stage tongue cancer into low- and high-risk groups
Sundquist, Elias; Kauppila, Joonas H; Veijola, Johanna; Mroueh, Rayan; Lehenkari, Petri; Laitinen, Saara; Risteli, Juha; Soini, Ylermi; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Sawazaki-Calone, Iris; Soares Macedo, Carolina Carneiro; Bloigu, Risto; Coletta, Ricardo D; Salo, Tuula (2017-01-17)
Sundquist, E., Kauppila, J., Veijola, J., Mroueh, R., Lehenkari, P., Laitinen, S., Risteli, J., Soini, Y., Kosma, V., Sawazaki-Calone, I., Macedo, C., Bloigu, R., Coletta, R., Salo, T. (2017) Tenascin-C and fibronectin expression divide early stage tongue cancer into low- and high-risk groups. British Journal of Cancer, 116 (5), 640-648. doi:10.1038/bjc.2016.455
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Background: Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) metastasises early, especially to regional lymph nodes. There is an ongoing debate on which early stage (T1-T2N0) patients should be treated with elective neck dissection. We need prognosticators for early stage tongue cancer.
Methods: Mice immunisation with human mesenchymal stromal cells resulted in production of antibodies against tenascin-C (TNC) and fibronectin (FN), which were used to stain 178 (98 early stage), oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma samples. Tenascin-C and FN expression in the stroma (negative, moderate or abundant) and tumour cells (negative or positive) were assessed. Similar staining was obtained using corresponding commercial antibodies.
Results: Expression of TNC and FN in the stroma, but not in the tumour cells, proved to be excellent prognosticators both in all stages and in early stage cases. Among early stages, when stromal TNC was negative, the 5-year survival rate was 88%. Correspondingly, when FN was negative, no cancer deaths were observed. Five-year survival rates for abundant expression of TNC and FN were 43% and 25%, respectively.
Conclusions: Stromal TNC and, especially, FN expressions differentiate patients into low- and high-risk groups. Surgery alone of early stage primary tumours might be adequate when stromal FN is negative. Aggressive treatments should be considered when both TNC and FN are abundant.
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