The pH sensitive properties of carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles cross-linked with calcium ions
Kalliola, Simo; Repo, Eveliina; Srivastava, Varsha; Heiskanen, Juha P.; Sirviö, Juho Antti; Liimatainen, Henrikki; Sillanpää, Mika (2017-02-21)
Simo Kalliola, Eveliina Repo, Varsha Srivastava, Juha P. Heiskanen, Juho Antti Sirviö, Henrikki Liimatainen, Mika Sillanpää, The pH sensitive properties of carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles cross-linked with calcium ions, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, Volume 153, 1 May 2017, Pages 229-236, ISSN 0927-7765, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2017.02.025.
© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
In environmental applications the applied materials are required to be non-toxic and biodegradable. Carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles cross-linked with Ca²⁺ ions (CMC-Ca) fulfill these requirements, and they are also renewable. These nanoparticles were applied to oil-spill treatment in our previous study and here we focused on enhancing their properties. It was found that while the divalent Ca²⁺ ions are crucial for the formation of the CMC-Ca, the attractive interaction between -NH₃⁺ and -COO⁻ groups contributed significantly to the formation and stability of the CMC-Ca. The stability decreased as a function of pH due to the deprotonation of the amino groups. Therefore, the nanoparticles were found to be fundamentally pH sensitive in solution, if the pH deviated from the pH (7–9) that was used in the synthesis of the nanoparticles. The pH sensitive CMC-Ca synthesized in pH 7 and 8 were most stable in the studied conditions and could find applications in oil-spill treatment or controlled-release of substances.
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